I feel that good hygiene begins with the basics of effective hand-washing. George Will writes about economic equality in the United States. Discussing a statement of fact is extremely difficult. How will I continue the discussion of something that cannot be disputed?
Most effective thesis statements often answer these three questions: What is the main idea that will be discussed about the topic? What is the evidence or support that will be used to support the main idea?
I might begin with a sentence like this: Playing sports is really good for people. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results.
Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order. Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper. Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented.
Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them. If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section. Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data.
Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify. In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions.
Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work. If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it. After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section. In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure.
If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so. If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper.
Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section. If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so. You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction. Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction.
You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc. Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc.
Include an index figure map showing and naming all locations discussed in paper. You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss. Examine your figures with these questions in mind: Is the figure self-explanatory? Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated?
Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. Could chart junk be eliminated? Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated? Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space?
Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table? Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible.
If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be. If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation.
Final Thesis Make 3 final copies: Final thesis should be bound. Printed cleanly on white paper. Double-spaced using point font. Resources The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses. Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for. Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help. The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them.
Also see additional books listed as Resources. Copy Editing Proof read your thesis a few times. Make sure that you use complete sentences Check your grammar: Give it to others to read and comment.
Content Editing logic repetition, relevance style. Avoiding ambiguity Do not allow run-on sentences to sneak into your writing; try semicolons. Avoid clauses or phrases with more than two ideas in them. Do not use double negatives. Do not use dangling participles i. Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun it, these, those, that, this, one is crystal clear.
If in doubt, use the noun rather than the pronoun, even if the resulting sentence seems a little bit redundant. Ensure that subject and verb agree in number singular versus plural. Be especially careful with compound subjects. Avoid qualitative adjectives when describing concepts that are quantifiable "The water is deep. Do not use unexplained acronyms. Spell out all acronyms the first time that you use them.
Thesis length Write for brevity rather than length. The goal is the shortest possible paper that contains all information necessary to describe the work and support the interpretation.
Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents. In addition, it has the university logo and a text about the academic degree, the place and time for the submission. The verso back of the title page is where you find the copyright notice, the publisher, the ISSN number, etc. This may look like this:. Your university might not have a standard for a copyright page. If this is the case, you could put here the names of your supervisor s and evaluation committee members instead.
On the dedication page the author names the person s for whom the book is written. It is for the author to decide whether to have a dedication or not. It is not necessary to identify the person s to whom the work is dedicated. Examples of a dedication are:. Patribus a pueris semper parendum est. The epigraph is a short quotation or a poem, which usually serves to link the book to other, usually well-known, published works.
The source of the quotation is given on the line following the epigraph and is usually aligned right, often preceded by a dash. The table of contents should contain the title and beginning page number of everything that follows it: If some chapter titles are too long, consider choosing alternative short titles to be used in the table of contents. Do not include the contents in the table of contents unless you want to make a joke. The list of illustrations contains all illustrations in the dissertation and the page numbers where they can be found.
If there are various kinds of illustrations, the list can be divided into parts, such as Figures, Maps , etc. The titles of the illustrations need not correspond exactly to the captions printed with the illustrations themselves; you can use shortened titles. The list of Illustrations is usually titled simply Illustrations , but appears as List of Illustrations in the table of contents. A list of tables usually titled just Tables but entered in the table of contents as List of Tables contains all tables and their page numbers.
The titles of the tables may be shortened if needed. The abstract includes a concise description of the thesis — the problems discussed in it and their proposed solution. The abstract must focus on the result of the scientific investigation, rather than giving the background and methodology for the investigation. This is why people read the abstract: The abstract is a self-contained text and should not contain references. If this is needed, then you can include the whole reference in the abstract.
The abstract is best written towards the end of the dissertation writing process. The abstract will be the most widely read and published part of your thesis: In the acknowledgement you thank the people who have contributed to your doctoral degree by providing academic supervision, administrative support, food and shelter, friendship, etc. First and foremost, you should thank your main supervisor, followed by the co-supervisor s and the people who have helped you shape your academic profile.
It is a good idea to thank the administrative staff at the Faculty, who will have most likely helped you sort out some problems during your postgraduate studies. You can then continue with thanking your close colleagues, friends, spouse, kids, parents, and optionally God.
The acknowledgements are the only place in the dissertation where you may reveal personal information about yourself and your life. It is less formal than the rest of the dissertation and can include jokes, sentences in foreign language, etc. Keep in mind though that a lot of people who do not know you personally will read this part, so you should not be too personal and revealing.
It is a good idea to prepare a list of people to include in the acknowledgements before one has started writing them. You can begin with this list months before you submit your dissertation; stick a post-it note on your desk and add the names of people to thank as you remember them.
The acknowledgements of a dissertation are the only part that everyone will read I believe that by the end of a defense event, everybody in the audience has read the acknowledgements in the dissertation copy before them. Make time to write it well and include all people you want to thank to. Be aware that the acknowledgements of your dissertation can form the basis for the selection of your defense committee. Sometimes, the author may need to add a list of the transliterations used in the book.
A good thesis is specific to the facts being discussed and shows the precise relationship among them. If the thesis makes as much sense for a paper on the French Revolution as for one on the spread of VCRs (e.g., “the world is always changing”), it is too vague.
Upon the recommendation of the thesis defense panel and the permission of the student, a thesis may be added to OhioLINK’s Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center (ETD). If the thesis is approved for inclusion in the ETD, the student will submit it online with the help of the Maly Library staff.
With a good understanding of the elements of a successful research paper, the process can be made a whole lot easier and simpler. A Successful Research Paper is a SMART one A successful research paper fulfills the objective of increasing readers' knowledge of a . The Elements of a Five Chapter Thesis. Chapter I - Examines the elements found in the Introductory Chapter of a thesis. Chapter II - Overviews the Literature Review. Chapter III - Insight into the complex world of reseach methodology. Chapter IV - Provides the elements necessary to present a complete Findings or Results section.
Year 7 ict homework help.. order of thesis and paper elements So my timetable for this year is looking pretty empty. which would be great if i knew i didn't have to fill the empty with dissertation 2 page essay on the bill of rights. The title of the thesis or dissertation in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page. Your name, centered 1″ below the title. .